Earth Science

  • In the news

  • Climate science is not settled; more research is needed
    Asheville Citizen-Times, United States -
    ... Change, comes up with a long list of very important, but unresolved, climate science questions. To give three examples: * We know that the earth's surface has ...
  • Clubs and Organizations
    Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, WI -
    ... Village of Pewaukee. Individuals interested in earth science, rock collecting and lapidary are welcome. Call Allan Hanson at 367-2976. ...
  • Science talk at CCC
    Plattsburgh Press Republican, NY -
    ... staff member Pat McCracken said at Clinton Community's College's annual science show. ... shuttle reveal images of lower orbit and the rapid decent back to Earth. ...
  • The whole universe is Mr. Roberts' neighborhood
    Russellville Courier, AR -
    ... teacher. He currently teaches ninth-grade AP physical science, physical science, principles of technology and earth science. He ...
  • CU's Anseth: Down-to-earth science 'superstar'
    Boulder Daily Camera, CO -
    ... "Down to earth," "happy," and ... Engineers, which recognizes the top chemical engineering researcher under the age of 36; a National Science Foundation Faculty ...
Earth science (also known as geoscience or the geosciences), is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth science. The major historic disciplines use physics, mathematics, chemistry, and biology to build a quantitative understanding of the principal areas or spheres of the Earth system:

However, given the numerous interactions between the spheres many modern fields take an interdisciplinary approach and thus do not sit comfortably in this scheme:

  • Biogeochemistry follows the cycling of elements through the spheres mediated by biological and geological processes, and especially their distribution and fluxes between reservoirs.
Furthermore, other modern disciplines known collectively as Earth system science approach the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedbacks between constituent systems:

  • Meteorology describes, explains and predicts the weather based on the interaction of principally the ocean and atmosphere.
  • Climatology describes and explains the climate in terms of the interaction of the litho-, hydro-, atmo-, cryo-, and bio- spheres.
  • Gaia theories explain the behaviour of the Earth system in terms of the influence of the biosphere.
Like all other scientists, earth scientists apply the scientific method: formulate hypotheses after observation of and gathering data about natural phenomena and then test those hypotheses. In earth science, data usually plays a critical role in testing and formulating hypotheses. The systems approach, enabled by the combined use of computer models as hypotheses tested by global satellite and ship-board data, is increasingly giving scientists the ability to explain the past and possible future behaviour of the Earth system.

1 Partial list of the major Earth Science topics

Table of contents

Partial list of the major Earth Science topics






Atmospheric Science